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Q: Why are short"‘term solutions often offered to achieve sustainability? Why must sustainable solutions work in the long term? Why does the current political system inhibit our ability as a community to work on long"‘term solutions, and how can citizens change this?
Q: How can consumption be reduced while maintaining one's quality of life?
Q: What accounts for the view that people's needs cannot be provided for and the environment protected simultaneously?
Q: Why is it imperative that humans convert their consumptive behaviours and practices to more sustainable ones?
Q: Describe some of the actions being taken by colleges and universities to promote sustainability.
Q: Green campuses have reduced the size of their ecological footprint.
Q: Populations are stabilizing in many developing nations because of urbanization, wealth, education, and the empowerment of women.
Q: To be sustainable, a solution must work in the long term.
Q: The current government subsidy structure is helping Canada attain the goals of sustainability.
Q: Continued population growth is not sustainable, but continued consumption is.
Q: The environmental bottleneck is defined as the reduction of economic competition because of the environmental sustainability of a company's products.
Q: In the study of the level of happiness among Americans ________.A) happiness was inversely proportional to wealthB) respondents underestimated how much more happy rich people really areC) increasing average income did not increase the level of happinessD) the increase in happiness was proportional to the increase in incomeE) the data were too noisy to form any conclusions
Q: Structures given a LEED platinum ranking are ________. A) inefficient and need to be renovated B) especially high in heavy metal content C) exemplary in sustainable design D) constructed to function without electricity E) free of lead-containing materials
Q: It is imperative that developed countries assist developing countries in economic advancement for sustainability because ________. A) there is a direct connection between poverty and those who suffer the most from environmental degradation B) it is less expensive for developing countries to manufacture the consumer goods needed by developed countries C) it is easier and less expensive to exploit resources in developing countries D) it is easier and less expensive to create physical and governmental infrastructure to support heavy industry in developing countries E) all people in developing countries welcome the influx of foreign corporations for economic assistance
Q: An important way to alter the perception that protecting the environment is incompatible with economic progress is through ________. A) education and collaboration B) consumerism and competition C) top"‘down governmental regulations D) articles in newspapers E) picketing and paying for newspaper ads
Q: To encourage corporations to adopt green technologies in a capitalist economy, citizens can ________. A) choose products from companies that adopt sustainable practices B) visibly protest companies that are destructive to the environment C) choose products with the lowest price D) write letters to all companies encouraging them to adopt green technologies E) attend meetings with other people who desire green technologies
Q: Our global society has a greater potential to address concerns of sustainability today compared to previous societies because ________. A) politicians have to address the long-term sustainability to be elected again B) we have a democracy C) we have many thousands of scientists who study Earth's processes and resources closely D) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms E) we value goods
Q: The lesson of Easter Island was that ________. A) economics is an important facilitator of sustainable societies B) conservation of resources is necessary for sustainable societies C) we never comprehend resource issues until the resources are gone D) grassroots organizations must be involved to ensure sustainable societies E) political and governmental support are required to ensure sustainable societies
Q: There is ample reason to hope that, because of human ________, we may achieve sustainability before doing too much damage to our planet and our own prospects. A) consumption patterns B) ingenuity and determination C) rationalization D) "affluenza" E) procrastination
Q: If Earth's 4.6-billion-year history was compressed into 12 hours, the first life would have appeared at 2:52, and modern humans (Homo sapiens) would have appeared around ________. A) 9:50 B) 10:54 C) 11:59:45 D) 11:59:55 E) 11:59:59
Q: Some argue that globalization will have a negative impact because ________. A) it entails multinational corporations attaining greater and greater power over global trade B) it entails weakened central power as a result of homogenization C) the United Nations will gain more power over national governments D) citizens will gain more power E) it will decentralize control of power to many stakeholders
Q: Many proponents of sustainability believe that encouraging local self"‘sufficiency is important for building sustainable societies because ________. A) it eliminates governmental influence on local practices B) it forces citizens to look more closely at the global community C) when people are tied more closely to the area they live in, they are more aware of their link with the environment D) more and more people are growing gardens E) This is not correct; proponents of sustainability believe that the solution is finding more effective ways of using our resources through the opposite tendency: globalization.
Q: We could, in theory, make all of our industrial processes sustainable if we could ________. A) transform cyclic processes into linear ones B) transform linear processes into circular ones C) speed up the disposal of wastes by deep-well injection D) develop more draconian policies to regulate manufacturing E) reduce the use of biodegradable plastics
Q: Which of the following will lead to sustainability? A) increasing energy production from renewable sources B) reducing consumption and halting population growth C) increasing population growth, because with the growth there will be more people to support our social safety net D) sustaining a high consumer growth rate E) creating industrial systems that are linear in design and operation
Q: Ecological economists suggest that we can gain a better understanding of economics and human interactions with the environment if we view human economies as ________. A) consumer driven B) preservation driven C) entities that are integrated within natural systems D) entities that are devoid of ecosystem characteristics E) consumption driven
Q: Producing responsible and constructive technology that can achieve sustainable solutions requires ________. A) funding for scientific research and elimination of damaging and inefficient technology B) an increase of the technology developed by the free market C) having citizens be cognizant of the need for politicians to work with "big business" D) public pressure to limit infringement of intellectual property rights E) importing inferior technology to developing countries while developed countries invest in green technology
Q: Reconnecting ourselves with nature ________. A) is possible only after economic development, because only then we can afford it B) requires considering the origin of what we use, so we can see our interdependence with the environment C) is something society cannot afford in the long run D) requires curbing human population growth E) is something good only for modern-day "hippies"
Q: The lowest scores of the Environmental Performance Index are in ________. A) Africa and Southeast Asia B) developing countries C) developed countries D) North America E) northern Europe
Q: A reason for the "economy against environment" mindset is ________. A) the difference in salary between environmental watchdogs and corporate CEOs B) CEOs are usually Conservatives and environmental advocates are Liberals C) industrialization and urbanization have broken the connections among ourselves, our economies, and our natural environment D) typical of environmentalists who would stifle the economy to protect species most people have not heard about E) command"‘and"‘control environmental policy may be too costly for industry and infringe on private owners' rights
Q: Sustainable development involves ________. A) reducing consumption, increasing efficiency, and using renewable energies B) larger buildings using stronger design and materials C) developing better transportation by building more roads D) using all resources at maximum rates E) sustaining growth by increasing economically recoverable reserves
Q: Our consumptive lifestyles are ________. A) a new phenomenon on Earth B) sustainable if we use technology properly C) consistent with the lifestyles of previous generations D) not affecting the environment on account of environmental regulations E) not likely to affect the ability of developing countries to obtain natural resources
Q: The highest scores of the Environmental Performance Index are in ________. A) northern Europe B) developing countries C) developed countries D) North America E) Africa
Q: The current use of fossil fuels versus the need to develop new renewable energy sources is an example of ________. A) how short"‘term needs are in opposition to long"‘term sustainability B) two different goals that are not in opposition C) governmental vision competing with economic practicalities D) two unrelated and independent but positive environmental goals E) an issue that will never be resolved
Q: Sustainability is about ________. A) sustaining resource use at current or higher levels B) keeping the natural environment and human society in a happy, healthy, and functional state C) holding or increasing the current quality of human life D) always focusing on fulfilling short"‘term needs E) opposing change from current policies
Q: Colleges and universities can advocate for sustainability with a focus on local biodiversity by ________. A) choosing to build new buildings using "green" materials, designs, and technology B) conducting an audit of operations to determine ecological footprint C) ignoring recommendations from an audit of operations D) having procedures and technology to use energy and water efficiently E) using native plants in landscaping
Q: Student sustainability movements are more successful when administration is shown how a policy of sustainable practices ________. A) increases the prestige of the college/university B) recruits more top"‘notch faculty C) attracts a more diverse student body D) saves money E) wins more awards
Q: Working to achieve sustainability on college and university campuses ________. A) will have long"‘term benefits to society when students graduate B) increases costs to students C) is not a vital part of university curricula D) is opposed by most universities E) will have no impact on society after students graduate
Q: The Environmental Performance Index uses data on 10 environmental indicators divided into two categories: ________ and ________. A) ecosystem health; ecosystem vitality B) ecosystem health; climate change C) air pollution; ecosystem vitality D) ecosystem health; biodiversity and habitat E) ecosystem vitality; biodiversity and habitat
Q: The success of the Summerhill Group in dealing with corporations was achieved thanks to ________.
Q: ________ is meant to sustain human civilization in a happy, healthy state.
Q: The labelling of products produced through sustainable methods is called ________.
Q: Populations may grow exponentially for a time, but they eventually run up against limiting factors and level off at a ________.
Q: Some progressive industries are making their processes more sustainable by mimicking ________ by transforming linear pathways into closed cycles in which waste is recovered, recycled, and reused.
Q: What is the first step toward a sustainable campus?
Q: What are two of the simplest and most common campus sustainability efforts?
Q: What is the definition of true progress for our entire planet?
Q: Give examples of "voting for environmental issues with wallets" on campus.
Q: At what level(s) do we have to make efforts to achieve a sustainable world civilization?
Q: What is the Talloires Declaration?
Q: Match the following.A) "cradle to grave" analysisB) externalC) RecycleManiaD) acquisition feverE) environmental bottleneckF) environmental logjamG) biodegradable masonryH) affluenzaI) Talloires DeclarationJ) internalizedK) "triple bottom line" analysisL) high energy efficiency1.Wealthy people in developed countries often have this2.An effect of unsustainable societal practices3.University leaders pursuing sustainability4.Characteristic considered by sustainable, energy"‘efficient universities when they build green buildings5.Sustainable accounting practices include these costs6.A proper analysis of all environmental impacts of a given product or practice
Q: Refer to Figure 23.1. Which of the conversions had the worst "rate of return" (i.e., which ecosystem lost the highest percentage of its original value as a result of the conversion)?A) Tropical forest, CambodiaB) Wetland, CanadaC) Tropical forest, CameroonD) Mangrove, ThailandE) None of the graphs show a particularly bad rate of return.
Q: Refer to Figure 23.1. Which ecosystem lost the most value (in dollars per hectare) on its conversion to private use? A) Tropical forest, Cameroon B) Wetland, Canada C) Mangrove, Thailand plus Tropical forest, Cambodia D) Tropical forest, Cambodia E) Mangrove, Thailand
Q: Figure 23.1Use Figure 23.1 to answer the following questions.Scientists with the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment analyzed sustainably managed ecosystems. In this graph, the sustainably managed ecosystems and the ecosystems that have been converted to private use are compared. Shown are land values calculated by researchers in four such comparisons from sites around the world.Refer to Figure 23.1. Which ecosystem has the greatest value?A) Tropical forest, CameroonB) Mangrove, ThailandC) Mangrove, Thailand plus tropical forest, CambodiaD) Wetland, CanadaE) Tropical forest, Cambodia
Q: One major problem Tikopians have faced and solved is how to ________.A) conduct trade with far distant groupsB) maintain a sustainable society over a long period of timeC) organize an educated communityD) use technology to increase population sizeE) find and exploit economically valuable resources
Q: People live in clans on the island. Within the clan, individual families are probably encouraged to ________ in order to ________. A) have as many children as possible; wage war on other clans B) have as many children as possible; grow crops to feed the clan C) have as many children as possible; care for their parents and other older clan members D) have very few children; concentrate the clan wealth among only a few people E) have very few children; avoid food shortages
Q: Archaeological evidence shows that, in a manner similar to Easter Island, the first settlers cleared forests by burning them and feasted on the birds, fish, turtles, and bats. The archaeological middens (trash piles) show that the settlers extirpated numerous species of plants, birds, and bats; that the fish and shellfish numbers declined dramatically; and that the average size of these organisms was drastically reduced. By the end of the first 1000 years of residency, the initial food resources were gone and Tikopians began to raise pigs as a major protein source. Suddenly, about 500 years later, the people killed every pig on the island. This is most likely because they ________. A) were having a huge celebration of some event, such as a victory over an enemy B) realized they were better off eating vegetables than feeding vegetables to pigs and eating pigs C) had a serious problem, such as a prolonged drought, and sacrificed the pigs to their gods D) were tired of pork E) chiefs made it taboo to eat pork
Q: There are food taboos on Tikopia. To catch and eat fish, a citizen must obtain permission from a clan chief. The purpose of this taboo is that it ________. A) prevents the tragedy of the commons B) helps spread the wealth C) keeps people from gaining too much weight D) ensures that everyone eats the same things E) requires the population to be obedient
Q: As you approach Tikopia, it appears to be covered with rainforest, with several layers of trees of various sizes. Close inspection shows that from the tallest trees to the smallest yam plants growing in the shaded gardens, the plants are all either edible or used for other purposes. It is probably true that ________. A) the inhabitants are extremely lucky to have such a wide array of useful plants B) the heavy rainfall is responsible for the wide array of useful plants C) three thousand years of breeding experiments led to the wide array of useful plants D) the Tikopians traded with other islands over centuries to obtain this carefully selected variety of plants E) visitors brought these non"‘native plants, which became invasive species
Q: Read the following scenario and answer the questions below.Northeast of Australia and northwest of Fiji lies the isolated tropical island of Tikopia. With less than 5 km2, it supports 1200 people and has been continuously occupied for nearly 3000 years, with the population holding steady for much of that time. It has a two"‘month dry season every year and lies in the Pacific's cyclone belt, which destroys homes and gardens on an unpredictable, but regular basis. Tikopia is too far away from other islands to have any regular contact; the islanders must be self"‘sufficient.Tikopia's heavy rains and moderate climate help the people ________.A) increase population levels easilyB) perform economically valuable work indoorsC) accomplish sustainable food productionD) attract a great many touristsE) learn to use technology
Q: In 2012 the Conservative government undertook a massive overhaul of Canadian environmental law by proposing time limits on the environmental assessment of industrial projects, downloading the assessment whenever possible to the provinces, and limiting who can participate in the process, as well as weakening environment protection of the Fisheries Act and the Species at Risk Act. The minister of the natural resources, Joe Oliver, defended these changes by saying that they are necessary to speed up the approval of the big resource extraction projects: "We must seize the moment. These opportunities will not last forever." Can you use what you have learned in this course to point out fundamental flaws in this argument?
Q: Our consumption has ecological implications. Illustrate this using an example of the ecological footprint of a banana split that you might eat in your university cafeteria.
Q: Why don't the phrases "humans and the environment" and "people and nature" properly reflect the relationships between their respective terms, and why may this language be an obstacle for sustainability?
Q: Why is the movement to become a sustainable institution, demonstrated by the many universities and colleges discussed in the textbook, so successful? How might the successes at these institutes of higher education translate to society as a whole?
Q: Today, a loss of 24 million hectares of wetlands in Canada would be unthinkable because ________. A) conservation acts and political pressure from outraged citizens would prevent this from happening B) we have not had a drought for a long time C) Lake Ontario is not dropping very much any more D) there is no longer enough fill to eliminate that amount of wetlands E) too many birds would live in the cities once occupied by the wetlands, creating health hazards
Q: The loss of wetlands was most pronounced in Southern Ontario because of ________. A) climate changes B) a drop in the level of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario C) a large increase in agricultural land D) a large increase in the population needing more land on which to build E) the droughts that plagued this area since the Europeans came
Q: Many of the species in the wetlands are endangered; these species would come under the ________. A) Accommodation Act B) Preservation Act C) Health Act D) PHAC E) Species at Risk Act
Q: Wetlands ________. A) globally have a total area similar to that of Canada's landmass B) globally have a total area similar to 14% of Canada's landmass C) in Canada will have the same protection as they had before the 2012 changes to legislation D) in Canada are no longer being destroyed E) are no longer a critical habitat to many birds, because they can easily adapt to the conversion of wetlands to farmland or to cities
Q: There has been legislation designed to encourage protection of wetlands, ________. A) and there has been increased funding to implement the proposals B) and funding levels for implementation of proposals has been steady C) but the 2012 changes reversed this trend D) however, funding for proposals is nonexistent E) and a system of green taxes is in place to fund the needed work
Q: Wetlands in Canada ________. A) increased because of vigorous wetland restoration projects B) increased because of natural causes, such as floods and hurricanes C) decreased because of natural causes, such as floods and hurricanes D) decreased because of human development E) stayed about the same over the past 40 years
Q: Read the following scenario and answer the questions below.Canadian wetlands provide a multitude of ecological, economic, and social benefits. They provide habitat for many organisms and are nurseries for many saltwater and freshwater fishes and shellfish. Wetlands also hold and slowly release floodwater and snow melt, recharge groundwater, act as cleansing filters, recycle nutrients, and provide recreation. As of 2004, Canada had 1.2 million square kilometres of wetlands or 14% of its total land mass. This is also 14% of the wetlands in the world. Since the European discovery, it has lost over 24 million hectares of wetlands to agriculture or urbanization. Nearly 15% of the loss is due to urban development, with the rest being due to agriculture and silviculture (predominantly logging). Southwestern Ontario experienced the greatest loss. Wetlands near urban areas were drained and became the sites for houses and later businesses. Environment Canada is charged with administering these areas and overseeing the implementation of the Canadian Wildlife Act, the Migratory Birds Act, and the Species at Risk Act. These acts and Environment Canada work to restore wetlands and their animal inhabitants and to prevent the loss of existing wetlands where possible or feasible. However, under the controversial changes to the Fisheries Act introduced by the Conservative government in 2012, wetlands and small rivers without species that can be viably fished will no longer be protected by federal regulation and enforcement. This move was sharply criticized by the scientific community and even by past Conservative fisheries ministers.In Canada, wetlands are primarily considered to ________.A) be important because they provide many valuable ecosystem servicesB) be useful to develop for economic purposesC) be important only for recreational purposesD) belong to the owner of the private property, to be developed or not by the ownerE) be useful for fisheries
Q: What is a subsidy? Describe the role of subsidies in natural resource management in Canada. Give examples.
Q: Compare marketable emission permits and green taxes. What are the pros and cons of both?
Q: The Tijuana River watershed demonstrated a transboundary problem. Explain what this means and then discuss the organizations that oversee international environmental law. This law can be conventional or customary. How do these two types of law differ?
Q: Discuss the relationship between politics and science in the context of environmental policies.
Q: Define and discuss the command-and-control and the market-based approaches to reducing environmental impacts.
Q: How does the 1985 Fisheries Act protect the environment? In 2012, the act changed, removing habitat protection from all but economically important fish species. Apply the knowledge you gained from earlier chapters to predict what the 2012 changes to this act will do to the act's effectiveness.
Q: Was the 1992 Canadian Environmental Assessment Act effective? Why? In 2012, changes to this act brought in strict time limits for environmental impact assessments, leaving it to the discretion of the authority to decide which members of the public can and cannot attend the proceedings, and, whenever possible, downloading the responsibility for the assessment to the provinces. What is the significance of the 2012 changes?
Q: What is the main goal of environmental policy? How does environmental policy address the tragedy of the commons and externalities (concepts that were discussed in earlier chapters)?
Q: Lake Erie has recovered from the worst of its pollution.
Q: A House of Commons bill affecting environmental policy would be introduced by a government agency such as CEPA.