Accounting Anthropology Archaeology Art History Banking Biology & Life Science Business Business Communication Business Development Business Ethics Business Law Chemistry Communication Computer Science Counseling Criminal Law Curriculum & Instruction Design Earth Science Economic Education Engineering Finance History & Theory Humanities Human Resource International Business Investments & Securities Journalism Law Management Marketing Medicine Medicine & Health Science Nursing Philosophy Physic Psychology Real Estate Science Social Science Sociology Special Education Speech Visual Arts
Q: The word "toy" is an example of a _____. A. syntax B. phoneme C. taxon D.
Q: _____ have many jobs in grammar, such as marking tense and number. A. Syntax B. Phonemes C. Morphemes D.
Q: The rules of _____ describe the way meaningful units can be combined in words. A. morphology B. phonology C. syntax D.
Q: The rules that govern _____ describe the sound sequences that can occur in a language. A. pragmatics B. phonology C. syntax D.
Q: A _____ is a minimal unit of meaning; it is a word or a part of a word that cannot be broken into smaller meaningful parts. A. symbol B. morpheme C. phoneme D.
Q: Phonology is to _____ as morphology is to _____. A. sound; meaning B. meaning; sound C. appropriate use of language in different contexts; correct word order D.
Q: In the word "falling," both "fall" and "-ing" are considered _____. A. morphemes B. phonemes C. graphemes D.
Q: An example of the basic unit of sound in the English language is the sound the letter "m" makes. This sound is called a _____. A. morpheme B. phoneme C. grapheme D.
Q: A _____ is the basic unit of sound in a language. A. morpheme B. phoneme C. grapheme D.
Q: The sound system of a language is called _____. A. morphology B. semantics C. phonology D.
Q: Which of the following is NOT one of the five rules of language? A. Phonology B. Syntax C. Morphology D.
Q: Someone with a vocabulary of only 200 words can recombine the words in different ways to say thousands of different things. This aspect of language is referred to as: A. syntax. B. phonology. C. morphology. D.
Q: A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called _____. A. syntax B. grammar C. language D.
Q: Jim and Joanna are curious to know if their baby will grow up to be a child with high IQ. Which of the following measures for assessing infant development is correlated with measures of intelligence in older children and would best suit the purpose? A. Bayley-III B. Gesell test C. Fagan test D.
Q: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development are used to assess Mathias, who does very well on it. A high score on the Bayley mental scale: A. indicates that Mathias will perform poorly in social skills quotient (SSQ) tests later in childhood. B. indicates that Mathias will have a high score in IQ tests later in childhood. C. indicates that Mathias will have a very low IQ score later in childhood. D.
Q: The _____ focuses on an infant's ability to process information in such ways as encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations, and retrieving these representations. A. developmental quotient B. Bayley Scales of Infant Development C. Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence D.
Q: Charisma is six months old and can vocalize pleasure and displeasure, search for objects out of reach, and approach a mirror that is placed in front of her. According to the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Charisma: A. is developing normally. B. is developmentally delayed. C. has an IQ of 110. D.
Q: According to the Bayley mental scale, by _____ of age, the infant should be able to inhibit behavior when commanded to do so, imitate words the examiner says, and respond to simple requests. A. 10 weeks B. 6 months C. 12 weeks D.
Q: According to the Bayley mental scale, a _____ infant should be able to vocalize pleasure and displeasure, persistently search for objects that are just out of immediate reach, and approach a mirror that is placed in front of the infant by the examiner. A. 2-month-old B. 6-month-old C. 4-month-old D.
Q: Identify the widely used assessment method of infant development that has five scalescognitive, language, motor, socioemotional, and adaptive. A. Apgar Scale B. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale C. Gesell test D.
Q: In the current version of the Gesell test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development, the subscores obtained from the four and five different categories of Gesell test and Bayley Scales of Infant Development respectively are combined into an overall score that determines the infants': A. intelligence quotient (IQ). B. intelligence inventory score (IIS). C. developmental quotient (DQ). D.
Q: Jean Mandler argues that early categorizations are best described as _____ categorization. A. conceptual B. textual C. factual D.
Q: Using habituation experiments, some researchers have found that infants as young as _____ can group together objects with similar appearances. A. five to six days B. three to four weeks C. three to four months D.
Q: _____ are cognitive groupings of similar objects, events, people, or ideas. A. Symbols B. Concepts C. Habits D.
Q: A newborn baby widens her eyes after her mother widens her eyes and mouth and smiles at the baby. Meltzoff would say that this baby is: A. exhibiting a reflex. B. engaging in true imitation. C. showing deferred imitation. D.
Q: Mandy sees a little girl in the grocery store throwing a tantrum for a toy. Mandy screams and cries for some candy the following week at the mall. Mandy is displaying: A. dishabituation. B. habituation. C. object permanence. D.
Q: From about 6 to 12 months of age, the maturation of the _____ and the surrounding cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobes, makes explicit memory possible. A. amygdala B. hippocampus C. hypothalamus D.
Q: Most of young infants' conscious memories appear to be _____, although their implicit memory of perceptual-motor actions can be _____. A. substantial; rather fragile B. well-developed; underdeveloped C. rather fragile and short-lived; substantial D.
Q: Renee remembers very little about the first three years of her life. Psychologists find this normal and call it: A. retroactive memory interference. B. infantile amnesia. C. child memory loss. D.
Q: June knows the names of all the states that comprise the United States. The names of the states are a part of June's _____ memory. A. innate B. explicit C. distinctive D.
Q: Remembering how to swim is an example of: A. implicit memory. B. deferred imitation. C. joint attention. D.
Q: Most researchers find that babies do not show _____ until the second half of the first year. A. dishabituation B. explicit memory C. habituation D.
Q: When Abraham describes to his friend what he did in his last summer vacation, he relies on his _____ memory. A. implicit B. explicit C. procedural D.
Q: Juno is riding a bike. Riding a bike requires Juno to use her memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically; this type of memory is referred to as _____ memory. A. explicit B. implicit C. semantic D.
Q: Which is the process by which information gets into memory? A. Encoding B. Encrypting C. Enlisting D.
Q: _____ involves the retention of information over time. A. Attention B. Memory C. Cognition D.
Q: Which of the following statements about joint attention is NOT true? A. Joint attention requires the ability to track another's behavior. B. Emerging forms of joint attention occur at about 4 to 5 months. C. Joint attention requires that one person directs another person's attention. D.
Q: Which of the following is a requirement of joint attention? A. An ability to manipulate objects B. An ability to track another's behavior C. A lack of interest in others D.
Q: When two individuals focus on the same object or event, the process is called: A. sensory attention. B. joint attention. C. amalgamous attention. D.
Q: Eight-month-old Andrew suffered brain damage at birth. His identical twin, Alex, had no brain damage. Research on habituation will likely predict that: A. Alex will not habituate as well as Andrew. B. both twins will habituate at about the same level. C. Andrew will not habituate as well as Alex. D.
Q: _____ provides a measure of an infant's maturity and well-being. A. Assimilation B. Habituation C. Lateralization D.
Q: Farah shows her baby a colorful block several times. The baby looks carefully at the block at first, but then turns her attention to a different toy after seeing the block a few times. The baby is displaying _____. A. distraction B. imitation C. habituation D.
Q: The focusing of mental resources on select information is called _____. A. assimilation B. attention C. habituation D.
Q: Attention in the first year of life is dominated by a(n) _____ process that involves directing attention to potentially important locations in the environment, that is, "where," and recognizing objects and their features, that is, "what." A. orienting/tracking B. sustained/focused attention C. habituation/dishabituation D.
Q: Which of the following is a key criticism of Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development? A. Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in an infant's everyday environment. B. Jean Piaget failed to conduct observations in controlled settings. C. Infants are more competent than Jean Piaget thought. D.
Q: In considering the big issue of whether nature or nurture plays the more important role in infant development, Elizabeth Spelke endorses a _____ approach that states that infants are born with domain-specific innate knowledge systems. A. core knowledge B. domain knowledge C. learned domain D.
Q: Research by Rene Baillargeon and her colleagues documents that infants as young as three to four months expect objects to be _____ in the sense that other objects cannot move through them and _____ in the sense that objects continue to exist when they are hidden. A. subject to gravity; transient B. consistent; existential C. substantial; permanent D.
Q: Research suggests that infants appear to understand the physical law of gravity: A. at birth. B. at around 6 to 8 months of age. C. at around 1 to 2 months of age. D.
Q: Researchers like Baillargeon have found that infants' perceptual abilities are highly developed much earlier than Jean Piaget proposed. These researchers conclude that infants see objects as bounded, unitary, solid, and separate from their background definitely by _____ of age. A. eight to nine months B. one to two months C. three to four months D.
Q: In Baillargeon's view, infants have a pre-adapted, innate bias called the principle of _____ that explains their assumption that objects do not change their properties unless some external factor obviously intervenes. A. consistency B. inertia C. persistence D.
Q: A developmental psychologist studying infants' understanding of object permanence uses a method where infants see an event happen as it would normally occur. Then, the event is changed, often in a way that creates a physically impossible event. The result of this is that the infants look longer at the changed event indicating that he or she is surprised by it. Which method is being adopted here? A. Violation of expectations B. Habituation and dishabituation C. Visual preference D.
Q: Identify the type of error that occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting a familiar hiding place rather than a new hiding place as they progress into Piaget's fourth substage of the sensorimotor stage. A. Type 1 error B. Type 2 error C. F-not-N error D.
Q: Heather is shown a teddy bear. The teddy bear is then hidden from her, and she searches for it. This shows that Heather has developed a sense of _____. A. symbolic manipulation B. infinite generativity C. telegraphic thinking D.
Q: The understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched is called: A. object containment. B. object permanence. C. object availability. D.
Q: According to Piaget, a _____ is an internal sensory image or word that represents an event. A. transducer B. sensation C. symbol D.
Q: In which sensorimotor substage does an infant develop the ability to use primitive symbols? A. Simple reflexes B. First habits and primary circular reactions C. Secondary circular reactions D.
Q: According to Piaget, the _____ sensorimotor substage marks the starting point for human curiosity and interest in novelty. A. second B. third C. fifth D.
Q: Sixteen-month-old Akel plays endlessly with a ball, rolling it, throwing it, using it to knock over other toys, standing on it, and trying to ride on it. Which of Jean Piaget's substages of the sensorimotor stage is represented by Akel's behavior? A. Primary circular reactions B. Secondary circular reactions C. Coordination of secondary circular reactions D.
Q: Eleven-month-old Jenny uses her toy golf club to bring another toy within reach. According to Piaget's theory of infant development, Jenny is in the _____ substage of the sensorimotor stage. A. primary circular reactions B. secondary circular reactions C. coordination of secondary circular reactions D.
Q: Significant changes during the _____ substage involve the coordination of schemes and intentionality. A. primary circular reactions B. secondary circular reactions C. coordination of secondary circular reactions D.
Q: According to the substages of Piaget's sensorimotor stage of development, which of the following statements about the coordination of secondary circular reactions is NOT true? A. It develops between 8 and 12 months of age. B. The infant must be able to coordinate vision and touch, hand and eye. C. It develops between 12 and 18 months of age. D.
Q: Sarah, an infant of seven months, loves repeatedly hitting a toy that lights up and plays music on impact with her toy hammer. Sarah is in Piaget's substage of: A. reflexes. B. primary circular reaction. C. secondary circular reaction. D.
Q: In which sensorimotor substage does an infant's actions become more object-oriented? A. Simple reflexes B. First habits and primary circular reactions C. Secondary circular reactions D.
Q: Antonio swings his arms while lying in his crib. One of his arms accidentally hits the mobile hanging above him. This causes the mobile to move. Antonio continues to swing his arms but is unable to strike the mobile again. This is an example of a: A. habit. B. reflex. C. primary circular reaction. D.
Q: When Monica was born, she showed the typical grasping reflex by closing her fingers around anything that brushed against her palm. After a few weeks, she showed this grasping behavior even when nothing touched her palm. Monica developed a _____ or a scheme based on a reflex that became completely separated from its eliciting stimulus. A. habit B. simple reflex C. primitive symbol D.
Q: In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development do infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things they can make happen to objects? A. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity B. Coordination of primary circular reactions C. Coordination of secondary circular reactions D.
Q: Which substage of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of vision and touchhand-eye coordination? A. Coordination of primary circular reactions B. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity C. Internalization of schemes D.
Q: In which substage of sensorimotor development do infants start repeating actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results? A. First habits and primary circular reactions B. Simple reflexes C. Secondary circular reactions D.
Q: In which of the following substages of sensorimotor development does the infant's main focus remain on his or her own body? A. Coordination of secondary circular reactions B. First habits and primary circular reactions C. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity D.
Q: Josh is three months old. In which of Jean Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development is Josh? A. Simple reflexes B. First habits and primary circular reactions C. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity D.
Q: Which of the following substages of sensorimotor development is characterized by coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors? A. Conditioned reflexes B. First habits and primary circular reactions C. Simple reflexes D.
Q: The _____ substage of sensorimotor development corresponds to the first month after birth. A. first habits and primary circular reactions B. simple reflexes C. secondary circular reactions D.
Q: Alice who is three weeks old is in the _____ substage of Piaget's sensorimotor development; she will latch on to and suck anything that is touched to her lips. A. simple reflexes B. first habits C. secondary circular reactions D.
Q: Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage of development into _____ substages. A. two B. three C. five D.
Q: The sensorimotor stage of development lasts from birth to about: A. six months of age. B. eight months of age. C. one year of age. D.
Q: According to Jean Piaget's theory of infant development, what makes one stage more advanced than another? A. When a child is able to stand and walk B. When a child understands the world differently C. When a child is older D.
Q: Jean Piaget believed that children's thinking in one stage is _____ that in another stage. A. qualitatively different from B. quantitatively different from C. qualitatively similar to D.
Q: For cognitive change to occur, identify the two processes that must work in concert as the child experiences considerable movement between the states of cognitive equilibrium and disequilibrium. A. Equilibration and categorization B. Amalgamation and organization C. Assimilation and accommodation D.
Q: When children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world, they shift from one stage of thought to the next. The mechanism through which this shift occurs is called _____. A. equilibration B. assimilation C. organization D.
Q: Trenton was playing in a sandbox. He was pouring sand from a short and wide fat container into a tall and narrow container. When he poured the sand into the tall and narrow container, it appeared as if it had more sand in it. Trenton could not figure out where the extra sand came from, and how it got into his container. As Trenton continues to try to solve this puzzle, he experiences considerable movement between states of cognitive _____ and _____ to produce cognitive change. A. equilibrium; disequilibrium B. adaptation; organization C. classification; modification D.