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Q: The richest dietary sources of vanadium are _____.a. fats and oilsb. cereal and grain productsc. sweetenersd. milk products
Q: Which of the following would NOT be a Red Flag of Junk Science? a. dire warnings of danger from a single product or regimen b. lists of "good" and "bad" foods c. recommendations from studies that ignore individual or group differences d. recommendations based on peer-reviewed studies
Q: The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 requires that manufacturers _____. a. secure prior approval to sell their products b. demonstrate that the supplements are safe c. provide a disclaimer on the label stating that "this statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration" d. provide proof of the dietary supplement's effectiveness
Q: Bluish skin and nails that result from ingestion of silver over a period of time are called _____. a. ichthyosis b. argyria c. progeria d. urticaria
Q: Although all produce symptoms of toxicity, not all of the important trace elements have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level established. Give the UL and/or the toxicity symptoms of arsenic, boron, nickel, silicon, and vanadium.
Q: Describe the pharmacological effects of vanadium.
Q: Explain the physiological role of silicon in normal growth and bone development.
Q: Describe the mechanism by which boron is thought to inhibit inflammation.
Q: Discuss the paradox between the benefits versus the toxic affects of arsenic.
Q: Match each ultratrace mineral with its associated functions. Mineral 1) arsenic 2) boron 3) silicon 4) vanadium 5) cobalt Functions a. no identified biochemical function for the ionic form, but functions as a necessary part of an important vitamin b. metabolism of methionine and methylation of DNA c. bone development, cell membrane function and stability, metabolic regulator, mediator of the inflammatory response d. assists formation, mineralization, growth, and turnover of bone e. no identified biochemical function, but pharmacological effects include competing with phosphate and mimicking insulin
Q: Which mineral is contained in a preformed metallovitamin essential for humans that cannot be synthesized from dietary sources? a. cobalt b. silicon c. nickel d. boron
Q: Which ultratrace element is not required by humans in its ionic form, but is a necessary component of the coenzyme form of a vitamin? a. iron b. boron c. cobalt d. vanadium
Q: Which ultratrace element is a constituent of vitamin B12? a. arsenic b. vanadium c. boron d. cobalt
Q: Toxicity of which element results in green tongue, diarrhea, and GI cramps? a. vanadium b. silicon c. arsenic d. boron
Q: What ultratrace element has been shown to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase function and the absorption of amino acids at higher concentrations? a. vanadium b. arsenic c. cobalt d. boron
Q: An ultratrace element that can inhibit many systems that require phosphate, such as phosphotransferases, is _____. a. nickel b. arsenic c. vanadium d. boron
Q: Which ultratrace element, in pharmacological quantities, mimics the action of insulin? a. boron b. silicon c. nickel d. vanadium
Q: Which ultratrace element enters the cell through transport systems for phosphate, with which it competes? a. nickel b. boron c. vanadium d. cobalt
Q: The major detrimental effect of a long-term excess of dietary silicon, usually in the form of antacids, is _____.a. cancerb. asthmac. diabetesd. kidney stones
Q: Dietary _____ inhibits absorption of silicon. a. iron b. lactose c. fiber d. alkalinity
Q: Which element has a positive influence on collagen synthesis and bone mineralization? a. silicon b. vanadium c. arsenic d. nickel
Q: What foods are rich sources of silicon? a. whole grains and root vegetables b. coffee and beer c. milk and milk products d. meats, poultry, and fish
Q: Which element is second only to oxygen in abundance on earth? a. nickel b. vanadium c. silicon d. cobalt
Q: In humans, signs of nickel _____ include nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing. a. toxicity b. deficiency c. subclinical deficiency d. carcinogenesis
Q: Which mineral may substitute for magnesium in the complement system? a. boron b. cobalt c. silicon d. nickel
Q: Which mineral is known to influence nickel absorption? a. sodium b. chloride c. iodine d. iron
Q: What ultratrace element is normally consumed at <100 g/d, mainly from nuts, legumes, grains, and chocolate, and has been assigned a Tolerable Upper Intake Level of 1 mg/d? a. nickel b. silicon c. cobalt d. boron
Q: Which categories of food provide the most nickel? a. red meats b. nuts, legumes, grains c. fish d. milk and milk products
Q: Because of its anti-inflammatory actions, which element may reduce the severity of rheumatoid arthritis? a. cobalt b. boron c. silicon d. arsenic
Q: Boron is associated with which of the following functions? a. metabolism of methionine and methylation of DNA b. bone development and mediation of the inflammatory response c. synthesis of glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and collagen d. insulin action
Q: Which ultratrace element affects the composition, structure, and strength of bones as well as cell membrane stability and inflammation? a. vanadium b. cobalt c. arsenic d. boron
Q: Which of the following groups of foods are richest in boron, providing 1.0 to 4.5 mg/100 g? a. raisins, legumes, nuts, and avocados b. pork, beef, and poultry c. milk , butter, cheese, and yogurt d. fish and shellfish
Q: Which ultratrace element was used as a preservative for meat, fish, and dairy products in the early 1900s, considered dangerous for humans in the 1920s, and then deemed essential starting in the 1980s? a. cobalt b. arsenic c. boron d. vanadium
Q: Human toxicity has been shown as blackfoot disease, a peripheral vascular condition, in individuals drinking water contaminated with _____. a. boron b. arsenic c. silicon d. vanadium
Q: Which element impairs iodine uptake, causing compensatory goiter in mice? a. boron b. cobalt c. nickel d. arsenic
Q: Selenium and iodine interact antagonistically with _____. a. arsenic b. vanadium c. boron d. silicon
Q: The element that appears to be needed for formation and utilization of methyl groups and formation of S-adenosylmethionine is _____. a. silicon b. vanadium c. arsenic d. boron
Q: What ultratrace element plays a role in the metabolism of methionine to taurine? a. boron b. arsenic c. vanadium d. nickel
Q: For what ultratrace element that is well known for its toxicity, yet is now deemed essential in small quantities, have no human dietary requirement and no Tolerable Upper Intake Level been established? a. arsenic b. cobalt c. boron d. vanadium
Q: Which of the following interacts with fluoride in such a way as to inhibit absorption? a. aluminum b. phosphate c. calcium d. sodium
Q: Which micromineral plays a contributing role in the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals that are more resistant to acid erosion? a. arsenic b. selenium c. fluoride d. nickel
Q: When superoxide radicals accumulate, superoxide dismutase catalyzes the formation of hydrogen peroxide. What happens to the hydrogen peroxide? a. It freely dissociates to water. b. It is excreted in the urine and through the lungs. c. It is converted to water and oxygen via catalase or glutathione peroxidase. d. It is used in the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
Q: Which mineral is an essential factor in the action of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the reduction of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide? a. molybdenum b. selenium c. silicon d. vanadium
Q: Which statement about selenium metabolism is true? a. Free selenide can be converted into selenophosphate. b. Selenocysteine is degraded to yield selenomethionine. c. Dietary selenocysteine can be utilized directly to produce selenium-dependent enzymes. d. Significant cellular damage occurs only with complete cessation of selenoprotein synthesis.
Q: What genetic disorder causes copper toxicity? a. hemochromatosis b. Keshan disease c. Menkes disease d. Wilson's disease
Q: What two minerals can cause damage to cells when in their free ion forms? a. iron and copper b. zinc and molybdenum c. iodine and manganese d. zinc and copper
Q: What glycoprotein serves as a transporter of copper, an antioxidant, and an oxidative enzyme? a. albumin b. globulin c. ceruploplasmin d. free amino acid
Q: The protein that plays a dual function in both iron and copper homeostasis is: a. ferritin. b. transferrin. c. metallothionein. d. ceruloplasmin.
Q: Which of the following dietary components impedes copper absorption? a. gluconate b. phosphate c. citric acid d. phytic acid
Q: Which vitamin may enhance copper reduction?a. niacinb. biotinc. ascorbic acidd. -carotene
Q: At the cellular level, which mineral interacts with vitamin A by promoting growth and helping to synthesize retinol-binding protein? a. cobalt b. zinc c. silicon d. chromium
Q: Zinc is important for taste perception as a component of _____. a. carbonic anhydrase b. alcohol dehydrogenase c. gustin d. thionein
Q: The enzyme that converts retinol to retinal and ethanol to acetyl-aldehyde contains 4 ____ atoms. a. copper b. iodine c. zinc d. iron
Q: Which trace mineral participates in the greatest number of enzyme systems? a. zinc b. iron c. selenium d. copper
Q: ZIP4 a. mutations result in zinc toxicity due to acrodermatitis enteropathica. b. is the primary transporter of zinc into enterocytes. c. is expressed only in the liver. d. degrades more rapidly when zinc intakes are low.
Q: Hemoglobin and hematocrit are common measurements for assessment of nutriture for which mineral? a. iodine b. zinc c. chromium d. iron
Q: Excessive intake of non-heme iron interferes with absorption of which mineral by an unknown mechanism? a. manganese b. zinc c. chromium d. selenium
Q: Which mineral facilitates transfer of electrons in the electron transport chain? a. calcium b. nickel c. zinc d. iron
Q: The following vitamins/ minerals are required for heme synthesis: a. vitamin E, vitamin C, and iron. b. folate, B12, and iron. c. B6, zinc, and iron. d. copper, zinc, and folate.
Q: Which statement is false? a. Hemosiderin is the primary storage form of iron in cells. b. Iron is stored mainly in the liver, bone marrow, and spleen. c. Iron is released more slowly from hemosiderin than from ferritin. d. Ferritin is an unstable compound that is constantly being degraded and resynthesized.
Q: The binding of iron by proteins defends the cells against a. iron deposition in kidneys and other organs. b. oxidative damage from free radicals. c. tissue hypoxia. d. stellate cells.
Q: In the presence of low intracellular iron, the binding of iron regulatory protein (IRE-BP) to iron response elements (IRE) present on the ferritin mRNA: a. results in a decrease in ferritin abundance. b. results in an increase in ferritin abundance. c. occurs only when intracellular iron concentrations are high. d. doesn"t occur.
Q: Where would you find iron regulatory element binding protein (IRE-BP)? a. cytosol b. nucleus c. mitochondria d. none of the above
Q: Which mineral is critical for oxidizing iron to be bound by transferrin for delivery to the tissues from the gut and liver? a. zinc b. manganese c. copper d. chromium
Q: Absorption of dietary iron is regulated by _____, produced by the liver when iron stores are high and released to the blood to act at the surface of enterocytes and macrophages. a. hepcidin b. hepaestin c. ferroportin d. hemoglobin
Q: Which of the following dietary substances inhibits uptake of non-heme iron? a. ascorbic acid b. lactic acid c. tea d. MFP
Q: Iron content of the average Western diet is estimated to be about a. 1 to 4 mg iron per 1,000 kcal. b. 5 to 7 mg iron per 1,000 kcal. c. 8 to 15 mg/day. d. 18 g /day.
Q: Which of the microminerals is considered essential for normal brain function? a. chromium b. fluorine c. vanadium d. manganese
Q: Nutrient-drug interactions caused by consuming amines in foods such as aged cheeses with monoamine oxidase inhibitors used to treat depression are most likely to result in a. high blood pressure and cardiac dysrhythmia. b. poor absorption of the drug when taken with grapefruit. c. enhanced metabolism of the drug rendering it less effective when taken on an empty stomach. d. enhanced excretion of potassium and other electrolytes.
Q: Nutrient-drug interactions caused by drugs such as statins used to treat cardiovascular disease are most likely to result in a. poor absorption of vitamins. b. poor metabolism of the drug when taken with grapefruit. c. enhanced metabolism of the drug rendering it less effective when taken on an empty stomach. d. enhanced excretion of potassium and other electrolytes.
Q: Nutrient-drug interactions caused by anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital used to treat seizures are most likely to result in a. poor absorption of nutrients such as iron. b. poor absorption of the drug when taken with grapefruit. c. reduced metabolism of vitamins. d. enhanced excretion of potassium and other electrolytes.
Q: Nutrient-drug interactions caused by antacids used to treat GERD are most likely to result in a. poor absorption of nutrients such as iron. b. poor absorption of the drug when taken with grapefruit. c. enhanced metabolism of the drug rendering it less effective when taken on an empty stomach. d. enhanced excretion of potassium and other electrolytes.
Q: Nutrient-drug interactions caused by diuretics used to treat high blood pressure are most likely to result in a. poor absorption of vitamins. b. poor absorption of the drug when taken with grapefruit. c. enhanced metabolism of the drug rendering it less effective when taken on an empty stomach. d. enhanced excretion of potassium and other electrolytes.
Q: Certain foods have been classified as containing goitrogens. List three of these foods and tell how they affect iodide uptake in the thyroid.
Q: Protein Regulation by Minerals. Zinc, copper, and iron regulate the expression of specific proteins, particularly those that are involved in ensuring cells receive these minerals, and those involved in preventing any toxicity associated with too much of a given mineral. Describe how excess zinc (or copper, but not both) and iron regulate the expression of a protein involved in their storage. Be specificname any proteins and define all abbreviations.
Q: Explain the influences of zinc on carbohydrate metabolism, BMR, and taste.
Q: Discuss the following measurements of red blood cells, telling what they are and how they are used in assessment of iron nutriture: hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC.
Q: Diagrammatically show the recycling of iron in the body. Label your diagram clearly to show: the sequence of reactions, enzymes involved, locations of the reactions and the chemical forms of iron. Start with the release of iron from heme iron in hemoglobin in old RBCs. Track this released iron until it is re-incorporated into heme.
Q: List 5 dietary factors that influence iron absorption and indicate what each factor does.
Q: Iron released from heme in the enterocyte is oxidized to _____ iron, which combines with _____ and is stored as _____.